The brain is an amazing tool, it allows us to learn, see, remember, hear, perceive and understand. However, the way the brain functions tells us little about how best to teach it. (Ormrod, J., Schunk, D., & Gredler, M., 2009). Information processing in the brain is the topic of a large, ongoing body of research. Although theirs fascination of the brain by its own merits, research would be unique to tell us what information is important for people to have nor does it provide a clue how to best help learners acquire important information and skills. (Ormrod, J., Schunk, D., & Gredler, M.,2009). However, there’s a growing number of people looking for psychology to better their study skills and cognitive performance. A great article to read is “Information Processing Theory” by Schraw and McCrudden. In this article, the author talks how we process information efficiently and perform better than computers at problem solving and critical thinking. He also covers information processing model (IPM). A model that consists of three main components, sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory. “Sensory and working memory enable people to manage limited amounts of incoming information during initial processing, whereas long-term memory serves as a permanent repository for knowledge.” (Schraw and McCrudden, 2013) The authors explain that each model is constant with useful findings and provides a framework for understanding the principles of effective learning. The information processing model has important suggestions for improving learning and instruction.
The learning process involves problem-solving. Problem solving refers to the process we go through to discover, analyze and solve problems. They’re different steps to problem-solving process and a great article to read is “Problem solving strategies and obstacles.” “Before problem-solving can occur, it is important first to understand the exact nature of the problem itself. If your understanding of the issue if faulty, your attempts to resolve it will also be incorrect or flawed.” (Cherry, 2015) (http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/a/problem-solving.htm)
Problem-solving is not a flawless process; there’re many problems that can constrain our ability to solve a problem quickly and logically. Researchers have described many mental obstacles, which include functional fixedness, irrelevant information, and assumptions. The learning process is very complex. “Learning is something external to the learner it might just happen, or it is provided by a teacher. Learning is “a process by which behavior changes as a result of experience”. According to significant questions that arise whether people are conscious of what is going on. Do they know they are engaged in learning – and if there’s any significance does if they are? Acquisition-learning is going on all the time. For example, the learning involved in parenting, which it has been referred to this unconscious learning. In conscious learning, the person is aware the engagement entails learning. ‘Learning itself is the task. What formalized learning does is to make learning more conscious in order to enhance it’ (Smith, 2003). (http://infed.org/mobi/learning-theory-models-product-and-process/)
The learning process leads us to the learning theories and the idea how or why change occurs. The four learning theories, behaviorist, cognitive, humanistic and social, these approaches involve contrasting ideas as to the purpose and process of learning and the role that instructional designers may take.
Ormrod, J., Schunk, D., & Gredler, M. (2009). Learning theories and instruction (Laureate custom edition). New York: Pearson. Chapter 2, “Overview” (p. 95)
Gregory Schraw and Matthew McCrudden
Jul 12, 2013
Information Processing Theory
Smith, M. K. (2003). ‘Learning theory’, the encyclopedia of informal education.
Kendra Cherry, 2015
Problem-Solving Strategies and Obstacles